Standardization vs. normalization

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In the overall knowledge discovery process, before data mining itself, data preprocessing plays a crucial role. One of the first steps concerns the normalization of the data. This step is very important when dealing with parameters of different units and scales. For example, some data mining techniques use the Euclidean distance. Therefore, all parameters should have the same scale for a fair comparison between them.

Two methods are usually well known for rescaling data. Normalization, which scales all numeric variables in the range [0,1]. One possible formula is given below:

On the other hand, you can use standardization on your data set. It will then transform it to have zero mean and unit variance, for example using the equation below:

Both of these techniques have their drawbacks. If you have outliers in your data set, normalizing your data will certainly scale the “normal” data to a very small interval. And generally, most of data sets have outliers. When using standardization, your new data aren’t bounded (unlike normalization).

So my question is what do you usually use when mining your data and why?

Note: Thanks to Benny Raphael for fruitful discussions on this topic. Thanks to Jim for a correction on May 26th 2014.

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Comments

92 Comments on Standardization vs. normalization

  1. Fay on Thu, 12th Jul 2007 2:47 pm
  2. Sometimes perhaps we can take logarithms of input data when they contain order-of-magnitude larger and smaller values. However, since logarithms are defined for positive values only, we need to take care when the input data may contain zero and negative values.
    You did a very good work on your blog! :)

  3. Will Dwinnell on Thu, 12th Jul 2007 11:00 pm
  4. A few points come to mind:

    1. Monotonic scaling of the data (assuming that distinct values are not collapsed) will have no affect on the most common logical learning algorithms (tree- and rule-induction algorithms).

    2. There are robust alternatives, such as: subtract the median and divide by the IQR, or scale linearly so that the 5th and 95th percentiles meet some standard range.

    3. Outliers (technically, and high leverage points) present an interesting challenge. One possibility is to Winsorize the data after scaling it.

  5. Sandro Saitta on Fri, 13th Jul 2007 3:46 pm
  6. Thanks for your comment fay. I agree with you on taking the log. I use to work with data in the range 10^6 to 10^12 for example. And thanks for the remark :-)

    Will, your suggestions seem very interesting. I don’t know the “winsorize” technique, but it seems it could be used in addition to normalization.

  7. Will Dwinnell on Fri, 13th Jul 2007 6:44 pm
  8. For readers who are not aware of this technique: “Winsorizing” data simlpy means clamping the extreme values.

    This is similar to trimming the data, except that instead of discarding data: values greater than the specified upper limit are replaced with the upper limit, and those below the lower limit are replace with the lower limit. Often, the specified range is indicate in terms of percentiles of the original distribution (like the 5th and 95th percentile).

    This process is sometimes used to make conventional measures more robust, as in the Winsorized variance.

  9. mb on Fri, 30th Nov 2007 1:23 am
  10. Will, can you tell me how I can scale linearly so that the 5th and 95th percentiles meet some standard range?
    Can this be done with both negative and positive values?

    Another question:
    If I want to compute an index where not only the units and scales are different, but also the input metrics into the index have different interpretations – specifically, one metric is better if the values are higher and another one is better if the values are lower, how can I compute an index that represents all numbers concisely and meaningfully?
    Let’s say I have Expenses ($), Profits($) and Turnover (%). Expenses and Turnover are better if lower, but Profits are better if higher.
    If comparing two companies on these metrics, and I want to compute one index to show the “best” performing company on these parameters, how can I do this?
    Sorry, not strictly data-mining relevant, but thought someone here might have an answer!

    Tried using z-scores and normalizing but doesnt work due to different hi-low interpretations.
    Eventually used a reverse-rank for Expenses and Turnover so that all have same order. However, rank does not show quantity difference between the two companies, just their ranks!

    this is a great blog, thanks to all for helpful comments.

  11. Sandro Saitta on Thu, 6th Dec 2007 10:26 am
  12. First, you can normalize/standardize your data. Or, on the contrary, you can maybe decide to manually fix weights to each of these metrics.

    You can for example use an objective function. Let say you want to maximize a function of the Expenses, Profits and Turnover. In the objective function, give a negative weight to Expenses and Turnover and a positive one to Profits. I don’t know if this will work for your problem, but that would be my first guess.

  13. shrawan bhattacharjee on Tue, 14th Sep 2010 12:19 pm
  14. Hi Sandro,
    Interesting article and the comments which followed. I am also dealing with analysis of Mass Spectrometry data. This kind of data suffers a significant variation due to instrumental errors and limitations (even if the same sample is analyzed). Presently I am using log transformation, which is giving satisfactory result. But I am still skeptical of possibilities of false positives, as data is from the range of 10*3 to 10*6. So what do you suggest best method of normalizing this kind of data.

    I am also confused with the two terms as you mentioned ‘standardization’ & ‘normalization’, which to use with mass spectrometry data analysis. Although I only found research articles mentioning normalization for such kind of data not standardization. Although when I explored the internet then both the techniques were referred in similar grounds.
    What is your views regarding this query.

  15. Sandro Saitta on Tue, 4th Jan 2011 6:07 pm
  16. @shrawan: If you know that your data contains several outliers, then I guess you should rather try standardization.

    […] ※normalization(正規化)とstandardization(標準化)の違いについて。 http://www.dataminingblog.com/standardization-vs-normalization/ […]

  17. Mrinal on Wed, 14th Dec 2011 11:05 am
  18. Good discussion. However the fact is… Now I am more confused. LOL!

  19. silvina on Sat, 9th Jun 2012 9:16 pm
  20. Detrending would be standarzisation or normalization or neither?

  21. Ravi on Sun, 10th Jun 2012 1:19 am
  22. Can you please give two basic good on the NOrmalization and Standardization techniques

  23. Rahul Kulkarni on Mon, 30th Jul 2012 8:07 am
  24. Is standardization and z-transform the same thing?

  25. Abraham Aldaco on Fri, 3rd Aug 2012 1:20 am
  26. Is there a scientific journal paper (reference) about this topic, standardization and normalization?

  27. Martin Hlosta on Wed, 26th Sep 2012 10:59 am
  28. Rahul Kulkarni: Yes, its the same.

  29. Arunava on Mon, 29th Oct 2012 6:39 pm
  30. Hi all,

    Apart from standardization and normalization, certain applications require each sample to be divided by their norm to get unit magnitude, mostly in PCA,LDA, sparse coding etc.

    What is the logic behind it. Also under such cases do we need to first apply normalization and then divide by norm?

    Thanks,
    Arunava

  31. Steven on Thu, 6th Dec 2012 10:46 pm
  32. Great Article. I actually have a problem and was wondering if the data should be normalized, and figure I should reach out here.
    I have 15 products a,b,c,d,e, etc.. They were all sent to different amounts of customers, and recieved different amounts of positive responses. The set up in excell would be:
    Product Amount Sent Positive Response
    A 1001 300
    B 395 210
    C 2399 295
    etc..

    I was wondering what would be the best way to scale and/or normalize the data so I can draw some conclusions. Any advice? Thanks for the help

  33. TonyD on Sun, 6th Jan 2013 12:51 am
  34. Just read a great blog post on the distinction between normalization and standardization. I’d used both in the past — but never really understood the distinction.

    Hope the link isn’t automatically removed:
    http://stats.stackexchange.com/questions/10289/whats-the-difference-between-normalization-and-standardization

  35. Sandro Saitta on Mon, 7th Jan 2013 9:20 am
  36. Thanks for the link Tony! Interesting discussion there.

  37. DAVID OMBUNI on Thu, 8th Aug 2013 7:44 am
  38. please send me the importance of standardize data

  39. David Garcia on Fri, 20th Sep 2013 10:23 am
  40. Very interesting thread.

    I have a question. If one has a large collection of data with several atributtes (let’s say 40) each of which follows a different distribution (gaussian or not),

    Does it make any sense to mix normalization and standarization in the same dataset? That is, standardize those attibutes that follow a gaussian distribution and normalize the rest (removing previously possible outliers).

    I presume it may distort the correlation between attibutes and therfore corrupt the results. If that’s the case, one has to choose between normalization and standarization for the whole dataset?.

    Thanks in advance.

  41. Sandro Saitta on Sat, 21st Sep 2013 7:01 pm
  42. @David: Very interesting question! In data mining, normalization/standardization is often used to allow data of different scale (unit) to be comparable by a classification/regression algorithm. So, if you mix both of them, then you loose this use. Attributes that have been standardized may have much more impact than the normalized ones, just because of their ranges.

    […] Standardization vs. normalization […]

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  46. […] Standardization vs. normalization […]

  47. Jim on Mon, 26th May 2014 9:09 pm
  48. The following statement in the original post is not correct: “When using standardization, you make an assumption that your data have been generated with a Gaussian law (with a certain mean and standard deviation).”

    The mean and std dev are definable for any continuous-variable distribution and therefore, regardless of the true underlying distribution, standardization will yield data having a mean of 0 and std dev of 1. There is no assumption that the underlying distribution is Gaussian.

    Of course, if the data are not Gaussian, then you could not, for example, make the claim that approximately 95% of the standardized values should fall between -2 and +2; this would be true only if the population being sampled is normally distributed.

  49. Mustafa on Fri, 5th Dec 2014 2:51 pm
  50. Dear All;

    For logarithmic normalization , i need to know how it improve the data , for example suppress the outliers , is it good to deal non-symmetric data? …\\

    Appreciate your help in advance

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    I gladly await your swift response,
    Email:moreganloeloanhome004@outlook.com
    Warm Regards,
    Mr Morgan Leo.

  101. MR DANIEL JOHNSON on Mon, 27th Jul 2015 10:20 am
  102. This is to inform you that DANIEL FINANCE LOAN COMPANY. We offers all kinds of loan at a very

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    Team Regards,
    DANIEL JOHNSON

    Financial Controller/Operation Manager.

  103. Hwa Jurong on Tue, 28th Jul 2015 12:05 pm
  104. Good Day !!

    I am Hwa Jurong, a Reputable, Legitimate & an accredited money
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    Hwa Jurong(MD).

  105. TEMPLE YORK FINANCE SERVICE on Tue, 28th Jul 2015 10:12 pm
  106. Because we specialize in Residential, Commercial and Business Loans, we know what it takes to get your loan done faster, more efficiently and with more cooperation
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  107. Douglas Rodgers on Wed, 29th Jul 2015 11:10 pm
  108. FOR ALL KINDS OF LOAN, APPLY WITH US AND GET FAST APPROVAL TODAY. 100% GUARANTEED…CONTACT US VIA EMAIL: Douglasrodgersloanfirm@live.com

  109. Chris Booby on Thu, 30th Jul 2015 5:21 am
  110. I Can Smile With This Man I Receive A Loan From His Company

    End your financial worries

    I’m Chris Booby from Canada I can smile with this man Andres Williams I received a loan of $75,000.US Dollars from his company and two of my colleagues have also received business loans from this man without any difficulty.with just none collateral fee and transfer option I advise you not to choose the wrong person if you actually apply for a cash loan for your project and any other. I publish this message because Mr Lance Robert made me feel grate with this loan. It is through a friend that I met this honest and generous man who helped me get this loan. To regulate your life, you need money, you are stuck, no access to bank credit, or do not have the benefit of a bank, you need to finance your construction, real estate development, creating your own business up your personal business, you have seen and need to make money, a bad credit or need money to pay bills or debts. So I advise you to contact and meet you for the services you ask of him. His Email address:…………andresloanfirm07@live.com
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    Regards

    Chris Booby

  111. Mr Alexader Dennis on Sat, 1st Aug 2015 4:38 am
  112. DO YOU NEED A LOAN?
    Mr Alexader Dennis now offers loans such as follow.. Home Loans, Business Loans, Personal Loans, Car Loans, Company Loans, Student Loans, Commercial Loans Etc,, Have you been rejected by other banks or other brokers? Do you have bad credit scores and no one is willing to give you loan? Contact us today for urgent and easy loan. We give out loan from $1,000 To $2,000,000 with a very low rate of 3% From the period of 1 to 5 years duration. Note:

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    * Appointments in the amount ranging from $1,000 to $50,000, 000.00

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    1. Full Names:……………………….
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    Email:(alexaderdennisloans@gmail.com)

    Best Regards,

    Mr Alexader Dennis

  113. MR DANIEL JOHNSON on Sat, 1st Aug 2015 5:28 am
  114. This is to inform you that DANIEL FINANCE LOAN COMPANY. We offers all kinds of loan at a very low interest rate of 2%. so are you tired of looking for loans and mortgages?, have you been tuned down by banks and other financial institutions, we well licensed loan company, we give out loans at very easy way and there is no social security number required and no credit check required, 100% Guaranteed. contact us now via e-mail: danieljohnsonloancompany@gmail.com

    Personal Information:

    Your Name:_______________
    Your Country:_____________
    Your Address:______________
    Your Occupation:____________
    Monthly income:____________
    Loan Amount Needed:________
    Loan Duration:_____________
    Mobile phone number:________

    Team Regards,
    MR DANIEL JOHNSON
    Financial Controller/Operation Manager.

  115. anna barger on Mon, 3rd Aug 2015 10:20 pm
  116. Hello everyone my name is Anna Barger,am here to testify how i was scammed. I was in need of a loan,and i applied from various loan lenders from this very site.They asked me to pay some amount of money at different basis but i never get my loan, this was how i lost the sum of 5000USD, I was now in debt because i borrowed the money from a friend. One day a friend of mine introduce me to Elvin Morrison, he told me how he has helped him with loan at several cases without any delay I was scared and never believe him, he urge me to trust him this was how i as introduce to him through his email {elvinloancompany@yahoo.com }, he told me he will offer me the loan that i only need to be comply with them.I did as he told me and without any delay,i received my loan as he earlier promise.Am here to tell you that most of the loan lenders in this site are scammers. If you truly need a genuine loan please meet Elvin Morrison through his email elvinloancompany@yahoo.com ,He is a registered reliable loan lender.

  117. aashifaasim on Wed, 5th Aug 2015 9:57 am
  118. Do you need a quick long or short term loan with a relatively low interest rate as low as 3%? We offer business loan, personal loan, home loan, auto loan,student loan, debt consolidation loan e.t.c. no matter your credit score. We are guaranteed in giving out financial services to our numerous clients all over world. With our flexible lending packages, loans can be processed and transferred to the borrower within the shortest time possible, contact our specialist for advice and finance planning. If you need a quick loan contact us via Email:aashifaasim@gmail.com

  119. Mrs Lisa Smith on Mon, 10th Aug 2015 8:28 am
  120. Here comes an Affordable loan that will change your life for ever,if you need financial assistance of any kind or you need a loan to pay off your bills,buy a car or forward your education, you do not have to worry anymore get back to us as we await to help you and change your situation contact us now via email as lisasmithloanfunds0@hotmail.com

  121. Wilson Edwards on Mon, 10th Aug 2015 8:17 pm
  122. Dear Value Customer,
    My name is Mr. Wilson Edwards CEO of Wilson Edwards Loan Company, We give out legitimate loans to serious Individual and Companies that are in need of loans, we offer all kinds of loans at 2% interest rate without stress, apply with us and get your loan transfer to you within 2 days, interest person or company should contact us via E-mail: (wilsonedwardsloancompany@gmail.com )
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    Home loan…………………
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  123. Mr Larry Jeff on Wed, 12th Aug 2015 7:21 am
  124. Hello,

    Are you in need of loan?? you can get your problems solve when you run to him . Am Mrs Anna . From U.S.A , last week Monday, I was looking for loan to pay for my bills , so i get myself into the hand of different scams and i was scams by different lender, If not for Mrs ,Mercy who is my good friend introduce me to Mr Larry Jeff (C.E.O) Larry Jeff Loan Company, and he help me with a loan of $20.000 without stress . So My good people of U.S.A , you can contact him via Email: larry.jeffloan3@gmail.com And don’t forget to tell him,that i introduce you to his company

  125. Mr.Perry Smith on Wed, 12th Aug 2015 10:43 am
  126. Hello Everyone.

    Am so happy to share this testimoney with everyone my God have done it for me. Well my name is Mrs Ann Cawford am from USA, New York City i live with my 3kid’s i work at Florida, i was in need of $70,000usd to start my owe business in New York, since 2months now, no way i did see who to help me, before them i have head of Mr.Perry Smith from financeservice how he helped people them i apply and them i got my loan right in my bank account without any further delay. So me and my 3kid’s are every happy may God bless him for is good things that he has done for me. So my dear friends if you are in need of a loan please contact he at financeservice2009@live.com

    Thanks be to glory
    Ann Cawford

  127. Micheal Benson on Thu, 13th Aug 2015 4:33 am
  128. To properly introduce myself, I’m Mr. Micheal Benson a private lender,i
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    Full Name ………………………………

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    Country …………………………………….

    Address ………………………………..

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    Age ………………………………………

    You have applied before or not. …………………..

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    Loan period ……………………………

    Occupation………………………………

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    I am waiting for your quick response.

    Yours truly

    Micheal Benson

  129. Micheal Benson on Thu, 13th Aug 2015 4:35 am
  130. To properly introduce myself, I’m Mr. Micheal Benson a private lender,i Give out loans at 3% interest rate, this a financial opportunity. at your door step, get your loan quickly. There’s so much people out There looking for financial opportunities or help around the corner, and Places, and still they are not able to get one, but here it is. Financing opportunities on your door step and as such you can not afford To miss this opportunity This service is made to Individuals, companies, businessmen and women, and loans.The availability of any amount of your
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    Loan application form and return it.

    Full Name ………………………………

    Private phone number ……………………….

    Country …………………………………….

    Address ………………………………..

    State …………………………

    Age ………………………………………

    You have applied before or not. …………………..

    Status ……………………………

    Loan amount needed. ……………………………….

    Loan period ……………………………

    Occupation………………………………

    Monthly Income ………………………..

    In recognition of these details we will send you our agreement with the repayment schedule, and if you agree to the Terms and Conditions, you stand to get your loan within 24 hours, depending on the severity and urgency,and trust.
    I am waiting for your quick response.

    Yours truly

    Micheal Benson

  131. Mr David Mutuku on Thu, 13th Aug 2015 12:56 pm
  132. Do you need funds to start up your own business? Do you need loan to settle your debt or pay off your bills or start a nice business? Do you need funds to finance your project? We Offers guaranteed loan services of any amount and to any part of the world for (Individuals, Companies, Realtor and Corporate Bodies) at our superb interest rate of 3%. For application and more information send replies to the following E-mail address: david.mutukufinance60@yahoo.com

  133. Frankie Jordan on Thu, 13th Aug 2015 2:12 pm
  134. HOW I GET A LEGIT LOAN @ 2% INTEREST RATE
    I was not sure of getting a legit loan lender online But when i could not face my Debt any more, my son was on hospital bed for surgery that involve huge money and i also needed some money to refinance and get a good home then i have to seeks for Assistance from friends and when there was no hope any more i decide to go online to seek a loan and i find VICTORIA LAWSON Loan company (marianlawson@outlook.com) with 2% interest Rate and applied immediately with my details as directed. Within seven Days of my application She wired my loan amount with No hidden charges and i could take care of my son medical bills, Renew my rent bill and pay off my debt. I will advice every loan seeker to contact Victoria Lawson Company with marianlawson@outlook.com For easy and safe transaction.

    *Full Name:_________

    *Address:_________

    *Tell:_________

    *loan amount:_________

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    *Country:_________

    *Purpose of loan:_________

    *Next of kins :_________

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    Contact her company Via Email: marianlawson@outlook.com

  135. Courtney Bieneman on Sat, 15th Aug 2015 8:38 am
  136. Hello everyone,

    My name is Courtney Bieneman and am talking as the happiest person in the whole wide world today and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will tell the name to the whole wild world and i am so happy to say that my family is back for good because i was in need of $186,000.00 USD loan to start my life all over as i am a single mum with 2 kids and the whole world seemed like it was hanging on me until i met this GOD sent loan lender that changed my life and that of my family, a GOD fearing lender, Mr Mason Diego, he was the Savior GOD sent to rescue my family and at first i thought it was not going to be possible until i received my loan of $186,000.00 USD from him; so am advising anyone of you genuinely in need of loan to contact Mr. Mason Diego via email: ( diegoloancompany@yahoo.com ) or reach them through their website: http://diegoloancompany.wix.com/loans for a quick and secure loan.

  137. Danny Moore on Tue, 18th Aug 2015 4:17 am
  138. Apply for a quick and convenient loan to pay bills,Mortgage,Education,commercial,Debt consolidation and to start your projects in less interest rate of 3%. Do contact us today
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    Loan demand is submitted details

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    Note: All replies should be forwarded to:
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    Thanks

    Mr Danny Moore.

  139. monika on Thu, 20th Aug 2015 1:07 pm
  140. Are you a business man or woman? Do you need funds to start up your own business? Do you need loan to settle your debt or pay off your bills or start a nice business? Do you need funds to finance your project? We Offers guaranteed loan services of any amount and to any part of the world for (Individuals, Companies, Realtor and Corporate Bodies) at our superb interest rate of 3%. For application and more information send replies to the following E-mail address: barrymoreloans12@hotmail.com

    Thanks,
    Mr. Barry More.

  141. Vicent Jessy on Thu, 20th Aug 2015 3:26 pm
  142. Dear Applicant,

    i am Mr Vicent Jessy a private loan lender,who give out loan in a very low interest rate of 3%.we give out all kind of loan like Educational loan, Business loan, home loan, Agricultural loan, Personal loan, auto loan and other good Reason, I also give out loans from the rang of $5,000USD- $100,000,000.00USD at a 3% interest rate. Duration of 1- 15 years depending on the amount you need as loan. Get back to us for moe information via: vicentjessy@gmail.com

    Remain Blessed,
    Vicent Jessy

  143. Michelle Chasity on Thu, 20th Aug 2015 5:50 pm
  144. TESTIMONY ON HOW I GOT MY LOAN MIRACULOUSLY FROM OWEN DAVIDSON LOAN COMPANY

    Hello Everyone, I Michelle Chasity a single mom from melange in Luxembourg, i will like to share this great testimony on how i
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    After been scammed by various companies on line and have been denied a loan by my bank and some other credit union i
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    Michelle Chasity.

  145. Mr Owen Davidson on Thu, 20th Aug 2015 5:51 pm
  146. GREETINGS TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC

    No social security and no credit check, 100% Guarantee. All you have
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    BORROWERS INFORMATION’S:
    First Name:
    Last Name:
    Country:
    Contact Address:
    Current Position Held at Place of Work:
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    City/Zip Code:
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    Gender:
    Date of birth (yyyy-mm-dd):
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    LOAN INFORMATION
    Amount Needed:
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    Loan Term & Duration:
    Telephone:
    Name Of Company (For company owners)::…..
    Your international pass sport or drivers license is:
    Have you applied for loan before (yes or no)..

    Best Regards.

    Mr Owen Davidson…………….

    C.E.O………..
    Thanks…………

  147. Mr Owen Davidson on Thu, 20th Aug 2015 5:51 pm
  148. Hello,
    Are you tired of Seeking Loans and Mortgages, have you been turned
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    Mr Owen Davidson

    C.E.O—

  149. Mr Owen Davidson on Thu, 20th Aug 2015 5:52 pm
  150. Hello Ladies/Gentelmen

    Getting a legitimate loan have always been a huge problem To clients who have financial needs. The issue of credit and collateral are something that clients are always worried about when seeking a loan from a legitimate lender. But Owen Davidson Loan Company. has made that difference in the lending industry.Owen Davidson Loan Company has been accredited by the lender’s council to give out loans to local and international clients at 2% rate . We have been given the privilege to meet your financial needs. The issue of credit shouldn’t stop you from getting the loan that you need.

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    No social security and no credit check, 100% Guarantee. All you have to do is let us know exactly what you want and we will surely make your dream come true. Owen Davidson Loan Company, say yes when your banks say NO. Lastly, we fund small scale loan firm, intermediaries, small scale financial institutions for we have unlimited capital. For further details to go about procuring a loan from us: Kindly respond immediately to this

    email::::owendavidsonloancompany1@gmail.com

    Loan Application Details
    ============================================================================

    Name:
    Address:
    Loan Amount:
    Loan duration:
    Nationality:
    Country:
    State:
    Monthly income:
    Gender:
    Age:
    Marital Status:
    Telephone:
    occupation:
    Purpose of Loan:

    NOTE:You shall receive the loan conditions and terms once we received your
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    Best Regards

    Mr Owen Davidson
    Thanks…….

  151. Vicent Jessy on Fri, 21st Aug 2015 9:36 am
  152. Hello Dear,

    i am Mr Vicent Jessy a private loan lender,who give out loan in a very low interest rate of 3%.we give out all kind of loan like Educational loan, Business loan, home loan, Agricultural loan, Personal loan, auto loan and other good Reason, I also give out loans from the rang of $5,000USD- $100,000,000.00USD at a 3% interest rate. Duration of 1- 15 years depending on the amount you need as loan. Get back to us for more information via: vicentjessy@gmail.com

    Remain Blessed,
    Vicent Jessy

  153. Dr. Robert Jack on Sat, 22nd Aug 2015 7:06 pm
  154. Here comes an Affordable loan that will change your life for ever, I am Dr. Robert Jack a certified loan lender, I offer loan to individual and public sector that are in need of financial Assistance in a low interest rate of 2%. Bad credit acceptable,The Terms and Conditions are very simple and considerate.You will never regret anything in this loan transaction because i will make you smile. Our company has recorded a lot of breakthroughs in the provision of first class financial services to our clients, especially in the area of Loan syndication and capital provision for individuals and companies. We have brought ailing industries back to life and we back good business ideas by providing funds for their up start. We have a network of Investors that are willing to provide funds of whatever amount to individuals and organizations to start business and operations.i want you to understand the fact that i Dr. Robert Jack is out to help the less financial privilege get back on track by providing all type of loans to them (E.G) mortgages, home loans business loans and bad credit loans commercial loans, start-up- working capital loans, construction loans ,car loans, hotel loans,and student loans, personal loans, Debts Consolidation Loans, what are you waiting for asap why don’t you try Dr. Robert Jack Loan home and be free from debts any interested client should contact me asap (dr.robertjackloans@gmail.com)

  155. LOAN AT ITS PEAK $$$$$$$ on Sat, 22nd Aug 2015 8:27 pm
  156. $READ MY STORY ON HOW I BECAME DEBT FREE WITH TIPS OF DETECTING A LOAN SCAM ON-LINE !!$$$$$

    Attention To The World,

    If you need a genuine and reliable loan help,and don’t want to be a scam victim,I think this is for you.This is a testimony on how,I was ripped off by some idiot that calls themselves lenders,and how I finally got my financial freedom through a God sent helper that finally gave my life a meaning,with the least cheapest rates as to 2% interest and little TOKEN other requirements and they don’t give a damn to your credit score… For more info on how to reach this great man just email him now and tell him that Mark Shores testify about him on the internet his email address is: slivinumarko@yahoo.com … CONTACT THIS GREAT LOAN LENDER TODAY VIA THIS EMAIL ADDRESS:slivinumarko@yahoo.com and my everyday prayer to this great man is that GOD WILL NEVER STOP BLESSING AND PROTECTING HIS FAMILY because he put an endless smile on my faces and am 100% DEBT FREE TODAY…….

  157. Morgan Steev on Mon, 24th Aug 2015 12:30 am
  158. HOW I GOT MY LOAN FROM HERMAN CEIN LOAN FINANCE (CEINLOANFINANCE@YAHOO.COM)

    Hello everyone, My name is Morgan Steev white, I am from the New Jersey, United State, am here to testify of how i got my loan from Mr Herman Cein { ceinloanfinance@yahoo.com} after i applied Two times from various loan lenders who claimed to be lenders right here this forum,i thought their lending where real and i applied but they never gave me loan until a friend of mine introduce me to Mr Herman Cein the C.E.O of Herman Cein Loan Finances who promised to help me with a loan of my desire and he really did as he promised without any form of delay, I never thought there are still reliable loan lenders until i met Mr Herman Cein, who really helped me with my loan and changed my life for the better. I don’t know if you are in need of an urgent loan also, So feel free to contact Mr Herman Cein on his email address: { Ceinloanfinance@yahoo.com} or call (201) 720-8275 for help…..

  159. lilian scott on Tue, 25th Aug 2015 12:48 am
  160. Hello,i am Mrs Lilian Scott, a private
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    that we render reliable and beneficiary
    assistance and will be willing to offer you a
    loan.So email us today on lilianscottloanfirm@gmail.com

  161. Laura Shannon on Fri, 28th Aug 2015 6:36 pm
  162. GOOD DAY

    WELCOME TO LAURA SHANNON LOAN FINANCIAL FIRMS

    Dear Esteemed Loan Seeker,
    We offer private, commercial and personal loans with very low annual interest rates as low as

    2%
    in one year to 20 years repayment period anywhere in the world. We offer loans ranging from

    $1000 to $5 million.
    Our loans are well insured for maximum security is our priority.
    Have you been turned down by your banks or you have been turned down by other financial
    institutions or trying to find a legitimate loan lender? Because in our loan there is no

    social
    security needed all you have to do is to contact LAURA SHANNON LOAN FINANCIAL FIRMS now,

    specialists who help stop loans bad credit history to find a solution that victory is our

    mission in granting loans to interested borrowers
    contact us below with this email

    { Creditor E-mail:laurashannonloanfinancialfirms@gmail.com

    Applicants who wish to avail our loan proceedings will have to fill out the loan data form

    below….

    Credit Form Application

    Name……………………
    Country ………………..
    Age…………………….
    Country ………………..
    City……………………
    Your address ……………
    Your phone ……………..
    Date of birth……………
    Do you have an account? ….
    Have you applied before? …
    loan amount needed ………
    purpose of the loan ……..
    Scanned ID: ……………

    { Creditor E-mail:laurashannonloanfinancialfirms@gmail.com

    Creditor: Laura Shannon

    C.E.O

  163. LADY LOPEZ on Fri, 28th Aug 2015 6:45 pm
  164. Hello,
    I’m Lady Lopez of the Church finance the loan, a legitimate loan lender, we give loans to businesses to invest and to solve financial problems, our loans easily and share capital of $150 Million usd, plans to grant private loans short and long term, a term ranging from $500 usd to $150 million usd usd for all serious people, reliable, and integrate you want to make the loan. My interest rate of 2% if you are interested in our offer please contact us at, LADYLOPEZLOANINSTITUTE@GMAIL.COM

    Name: LADY LOPEZ

    E-mail:LADYLOPEZLOANINSTITUTE@GMAIL.COM

  165. Vicent Jessy on Sat, 29th Aug 2015 11:45 am
  166. Goodday,

    i am Mr Vicent Jessy a private loan lender,who give out loan in a very low interest rate of 3%.we give out all kind of loan like Educational loan, Business loan, home loan, Agricultural loan, Personal loan, auto loan and other good Reason, I also give out loans from the rang of $5,000USD- $100,000,000.00USD at a 3% interest rate. Duration of 1- 15 years depending on the amount you need as loan. Get back to us for more information via: vicentjessy@gmail.com

    Remain Blessed,
    Vicent Jessy

  167. Mr Dennis Henka on Tue, 1st Sep 2015 6:06 am
  168. DO YOU NEED A LOAN?
    Mr Dennis Henka now offers loans such as follow.. Home Loans, Business Loans, Personal Loans, Car Loans, Company Loans, Student Loans, Commercial Loans Etc,, Have you been rejected by other banks or other brokers? Do you have bad credit scores and no one is willing to give you loan? Contact us today for urgent and easy loan. We give out loan from $1,000 To $2,000,000 with a very low rate of 3% From the period of 1 to 5 years duration. Note:

    (1) Borrower must be reliable and willing to pay back the loan as promised,
    (2) Borrower should be above 18 years of age
    (3) Borrower must be employed or business owner
    (4) Borrower will start paying back the loan three months after the loan approval Contact: brucehenka1@yahoo.com

    * Appointments in the amount ranging from $1,000 to $50,000, 000.00

    * The interest rate is at 3%

    * Choose between 1 and 40 years of repayment.

    * Choose between Monthly and annual repayment plan.

    * Terms and conditions of the loans flexibility.

    All these plans and more, please contact us.

    1. Full Names:……………………….
    2. Contact Address:…………………..
    3. Loan Amount Needed:………………..
    4. Duration of the Loan……………….
    5. Direct Telephone Number:……………
    6. Country…………………………..

    Email:(brucehenka1@yahoo.com)
    Best Regards,

    Mr Dennis Henka

  169. Mr Austine on Tue, 1st Sep 2015 6:45 am
  170. I am Mr. Austin, a private money lender. I give out loans with an interest rate of 3% per annual and within the amount of $1000.00 to $500,000,000.00 as the loan offer. 100% Project Funding with secured and unsecured loans are available. We are guaranteed in giving out financial services to our numerous clients all over the world. With our flexible lending packages, loans can be processed and funds transferred to the borrower within the shortest time possible. We operate under clear and understandable terms and we offer loans of all kinds to interested clients, firms, companies, and all kinds of business organizations, private individuals and real estate investors. Just complete the form below and get back to us as we expect your swift and immediate response. EMAIL : austinloan12@outlook.com

    Attention!!!

    Do you have a bad credit?
    Do you need money to pay bills?
    Do you need to start up a new business?
    Do you have unfinished project at hand due to bad financing?
    Do you need money to invest in some area of specialization which will profit you? and you don’t know what to do.

    We offer the following loans below,
    personal loans[secure and unsecured]
    business loans[secure and unsecured]
    combination loans
    students loans
    consolidation loans and so many others.

    1. Full Names:……………………….
    2. Contact Address:…………………..
    3. Loan Amount Needed:………………..
    4. Duration of the Loan……………….
    5. Direct Telephone Number:……………..

    Email austinloan12@outlook.com

    Best Regards,

    Mr Austin,

  171. Dr. Robert Jack on Tue, 1st Sep 2015 9:13 pm
  172. Here comes an Affordable XMAS loan that will change your life for ever, I am Dr. Robert Jack a certified loan lender, I offer loan to individual and public sector that are in need of financial Assistance in a low interest rate of 2%. Bad credit acceptable,The Terms and Conditions are very simple and considerate.You will never regret anything in this loan transaction because i will make you smile. Our company has recorded a lot of breakthroughs in the provision of first class financial services to our clients, especially in the area of Loan syndication and capital provision for individuals and companies. We have brought ailing industries back to life and we back good business ideas by providing funds for their up start. We have a network of Investors that are willing to provide funds of whatever amount to individuals and organizations to start business and operations.i want you to understand the fact that i Dr. Robert Jack is out to help the less financial privilege get back on track by providing all type of loans to them (E.G) mortgages, home loans business loans and bad credit loans commercial loans, start-up- working capital loans, construction loans ,car loans, hotel loans,and student loans, personal loans, Debts Consolidation Loans, what are you waiting for asap why don’t you try Dr. Robert Jack Loan home and be free from debts any interested client should contact me asap (dr.robertjackloans@gmail.com)

  173. henry cole on Wed, 2nd Sep 2015 6:53 pm
  174. I am a private lender i give Loan Guarantee Business, Personal
    Loans, Car Loans For House Purchase Loans, Car Loans ETC i give a long-term loan ranging from $ 2,000.00 to $ 1,000,000.00 from one to fifty years maximum with an interest rate of 3% if interested reply filled with the following information. (Henrycoleloanscompany01@gmail.com)

    Full name: __________________
    Gender: _____________________
    Country: __________________
    Status: __________________
    Loan amount: _______________
    Loan Duration: _________________

  175. finan on Fri, 4th Sep 2015 12:48 am
  176. I am a private loan lender which have all take to be a genuine lender i give out the best loan to my client at a very convenient rate.The interest rate of this loan is 3%.i give out loan to public and private individuals.the maximum amount i give out in this loan is $1,000,000.00 USD why the minimum amount i give out is 5000.for more information contact us email finance2014911@gmail.com

    Your Full Details:
    Full Name :………
    Country :………….
    state:………….
    Sex :………….
    Address…………
    Tel :………….
    Occupation :……..
    Amount Required :…………
    Purpose of the Loan :……..
    Loan Duration :…………
    Phone Number :………
    Contact email: finance2014911@gmail.com

  177. Mrs Paula on Fri, 4th Sep 2015 6:21 am
  178. Do you need a urgent loan to pay off your bills or you need a loan to start up your own personal Business Kindly Email Via: Jasonpaulaloans@outlook.com

  179. jerry on Fri, 4th Sep 2015 10:23 am
  180. get your Affordable loan now that will change your life for ever,I am MR birry a certified loan lender,I offer loan to individual and public sector that are in need of financial Assistance in a low interest rate of 2%.Bad credit acceptable,The Terms and Conditions are very simple and considerate.You will never regret anything in this loan transaction because i will make you smile. Our company has recorded a lot of breakthroughs in the provision of first class financial services to our clients,especially in the area of Loan syndication and capital provision for individuals and companies. We have brought ailing industries back to life and we back good business ideas by providing funds for their up start. We have a network of Investors that are willing to provide funds of whatever amount to individuals and organizations to start business and operations.i want you to understand the fact that i MR birry is out to help the less financial privilege get back on track by providing all type of loans to them (E.G) mortgages,home loans business loans and bad credit loans commercial loans,start-up- working capital loans, construction loans ,car loans, hotel loans,and student loans, personal loans, Debts Consolidation Loans, what are you waiting for asap why don’t you try.MR birry Loan home and be free from debts any interested client should contact me asap
    birrylapomicrofianacebank@gmail.com

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