# Gradient Boosting Machine – A Brief Introduction

One of the Predictive Analytics projects I am working on at Expedia uses Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM). This is currently one of the state of the art algorithms in Machine Learning. This article provides insights on how to get started and advices for further readings.

I will now focus on the use of GBM for regression, based on decision trees as prediction models. Using concepts of ensemble learning (www.tinyurl.com/ens-learn), the algorithm is based on the iterative construction of regression trees. From the second iteration, the algorithm tries to minimize the error (instead of matching the target) in order to focus on cases with higher errors. A notion of bagging can also be incorporated (see bagging fraction parameter below).

I would summarize GBM using the following description (from Natekin and Knoll, see the tutorial below): “In gradient boosting machines, or simply, GBMs, the learning procedure consecutively fits new models to provide a more accurate estimate of the response variable. The principle idea behind this algorithm is to construct the new base-learners to be maximally correlated with the negative gradient of the loss function, associated with the whole ensemble. The loss functions applied can be arbitrary, but to give a better intuition, if the error function is the classic squared-error loss, the learning procedure would result in consecutive error-fitting.

Examples of parameters to tune for GBM include:

• Learning rate: the lower the better; usually, the computational time will be the limit. This is the first parameter to be set.
• Number of iterations (trees): this can be tuned using cross-validation.
• Tree depth: maximum depth of the tree; can be set using cross-validation.
• Bagging fraction: percent of data to sample (a value of 1 means all the data are used at each iteration, so no bagging is used)

GBM provided better results than random forest for the regression problem I am involved in. Since there is no free lunch Machine Learning algorithm (www.no-free-lunch.org), you will have to test it to your specific problem. Note that it will be much easier to parallelize execution in the case of random forests.

Here is a list of articles I found very useful (if you were to read only one of them, I would advise the tutorial one):

For the implementation, I use the GBM package in R (www.tinyurl.com/GBM-CRAN). Note that the execution time can be an issue. On a training set of 100k rows and 15 features, building the model can take up to 45min on a business laptop.

This article was originally published in issue 4 of the Swiss Analytics Magazine.

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35. STELLA PRAISE says:

Hello,
I properly introduce myself as Mrs Stella Praise, we offer the Best
Loan service all over the world at 2%. Do you need an xmas loan, business loan
to cope with financial difficulties and constantly rejected by financial
institutions do. We offer credit in any form to individuals and legal
entities in the amount of 2%. The loan amount ranges from 5000 to \$ 500
E-mail: guaranteefundings@gmail.com…..With the following information Below

Full names:
A country:
Required quantity:
Loan Duration:
Age:
Floor:
Phone:

36. STELLA PRAISE says:

Hello,
I properly introduce myself as Mrs Stella Praise, we offer the Best
Loan service all over the world at 2%. Do you need an xmas loan, business loan
to cope with financial difficulties and constantly rejected by financial
institutions do. We offer credit in any form to individuals and legal
entities in the amount of 2%. The loan amount ranges from 5000 to \$ 500
E-mail: guaranteefundings@gmail.com…..With the following information Below

Full names:
A country:
Required quantity:
Loan Duration:
Age:
Floor:
Phone:

37. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to withdraw the maximum of \$50,000 daily for a maximum of 20
days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get \$100,000. MRS SANDRA is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and she is not like other scam pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. get yours from her. Just send her an email On atmmachine88@gmail.com

38. credit union says:

Do you need an Xmas loan? Do you want to pay off your bills? Do you want to be financially stable? All you have to do is to contact us for more information on how to started and get the loan you desire. This offer is open to all that will be able to repay back in due time and at interest rate of 2% just email us Email: creditunion000@gmail.com

39. Dr. Powell Garcia says:

DO YOU NEED AN URGENT LOAN FOR XMAS!!!!!!

Compliments of the day,

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or pay off your bills? Do you need funds to finance your project? We Offer guaranteed loan services of any amount

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Yours Sincerely,
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40. Reyna says:

God bless Sent Murphy company. thanks unto these great company who made it possible for me to upgrade my business i was stuck in a financial situation and i needed to refinance my business and pay my bills.Until i met this company who helped me out with the sum of [\$900,000]. I’m very glad and happy because I tried seeking loans from various loan firms both private and corporate but never with success,and most banks declined my credit.Truly i want to thank Mr Murphy who seriously help me through and ensure i get the loan without delay.If you must contact any firm with reference to securing a loan with low interest rate of 2% and better repayment plans and schedule,please contact Mr Murphy at sentmurphylender77@gmail.com for a fast and safe loan.

41. Wallace Dickson says:

To Whom it may concern!!!

Are you a businessman / woman? Are you in any financial mess or you need
Our Head Office In United state of America on +19513571932.
required to fill the info :
Name—-
Amunt—-
Duration—-
Phone number—
Country—
Regards,
FROM: Wallace Dickson Loan Company
+19513571932.
loaninvestment01@outlook.com

42. mary says:

i am a single mom and i have 4 kids, i have been suffering,but i got a card and this card gives money, i can use this card to withdraw 3000 euro everyday, this card is very sweet, even when you don’t have any money in your account, the card will still give you 3000euro daily, this card is a programmed card and it is approved by the government.

if you need this card or you want to learn how to make this card just contact dupuymichael26@gmail.com

if you need any help also contact dupuymichael26@gmail.com

43. hopkinson lance says:

Good day,

Are you in any financial crisis?
Are you in need of loan?If yes
Then you are in luck because there is a company that is here to help you,it gives loan to both individuals and firms irrespective of the amount or time lag,the interest rate is affordable. if interested you can contact us via hopkinsonloan@outlook.com.

Thanks.

44. Nathan MacDonald says:

A BIG THANK YOU EDWARD JONES LOANS {Jonesloanfinance@yahoo.com}

I really want to say a special thanks to this awesome company who made it possible for me to improve my business. I was stuck in a financial crisis and i needed to refinance my business, i tried seeking loans from various loan firms both private and corporate but never with success and most banks declined my credit, until i met this company JONES LOAN FINANCE who helped me out with a loan sum of (\$570,000) without any stress i truly want to thank EDWARD JONES who made it possible and helped me ensure i got my loan. So i also want to use this medium to advise everyone out there searching for a loan that if you must contact any firm with reference securing a loan with low interest rate of 2% and better repayment schedule do contact JONES LOAN FINANCE for a fast, safe and easy loan today via email:- {Jonesloanfinance@yahoo.com} or go to there page on http://jonesloanfinance.bravesites.com OR Text +1(307) 241-3712

My names are Nathan MacDonald…..

45. BENARD BUTTY says:

Dear sir / ma
We offer
Fresh Cut BG / SBLC, MTN Specifically for Lease @ (3.0 + 0.5 + X)%. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected We are direct to a provider for BG/SBLC specifically for lease, at leasing price of (3.0 + 0.5 + X)% of face value, Issuance by HSBC London/Hong Kong or any other AA rated Bank in Europe, Middle East or USA.
Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, loan financing by providing you with yearly renewable leased bank instruments. We work directly with issuing bank lease providers, this Instrument can be monetized on your behalf for 100% funding: For further details contact us with the below information.
Contact : Mr. Benard butty
Contact: bgfinance.butty@gmail.com
Skype ID: bglease.butty

46. ANDREA WALTERS says:

Attn: Loan Offer Apply Now
I am Mr.ANDREA WALTERS, a Private Money Lender and a corporate
financial for real estate and any kinds of business financing. I also
offer Loans to individuals, Firms and corporate bodies at 3% interest
rate per annual and 0.2% interest rate monthly base, loan terms
determinant INFORMATION NEEDED ARE:
Full Name: Location: Age: Sex: Country: Contact Phone numbers: Amount
Needed/Duration: email: Waltersfinhelp@gmail.com
Mr. Andrea Walters

47. HI, Happy new year, I hope you had an amazing holiday. We can help reach your goals for 2017 by helping you get the right funding you need. Loan Sharking Investment has low-rate financing options for your complete financial needs. We offer the best in Auto, RV, Visa Credit Card, Home Equity, Mortgage, Personal, Line-of-Credit loans & more. And you can always count on Loan Sharking Investment First to provide instant online applications, flexible terms, and the finest in member service. If in any way we could be of help to prior to your funding needs, do not hesitate to get in touch with us via company email at: loansharkinginvestment@gmail.com as soon as possible.

Best regards,
Loan Sharking Investment

48. Mr. Joan Felch says:

Hello Everybody,

Are you tired of Seeking Loans and Mortgages, have you been turned down constantly By your banks and other Financial Institutions or micro finance scheme. This is to let you know with 100% guarantee that we Offer loans ranging from \$ 2,000 to \$ 500,000,000 at 3% interest rate per Month. We give out LOANS for developing business a competitive edge/business expansion.

Be rest assure that We are certified, trustworthy, reliable, efficient, Fast and dynamic. and a co-operate financier for real estate and any kinds of business financing, we give out long term loan for 6 Month to 30 years maximum and all interest rate and calculate and allow to be pay annually.

We offer the following kinds of loans and many more; We offer the following loans to individuals-

*Personal Loans

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Business Loans And many More: If you are highly interested in our loan offer, kindly contact us via our e-mail id below. (joanfelchloanhome@gmail.com )

Mr. Joan Felch

49. Dr. Powell Garcia says:

Do you need Financial Assistance?
Do you seek funds to pay off credits and debts?
We give out loan with an Interest rate of 2.00%

Our commitment is to make business ownership a viable career for individuals who struggle to raise finance.
We provide affordable loans and mentoring to help these individuals to start up and succeed. We offer low-interest personal loans to help fund your business ideas and free businesses support to give you the confidence to succeed.

We offer a wide range of financial services which includes: Business Planning, Commercial and Development Finance, Properties and Mortgages, Debt Consolidation Loans, Business Loans, Private loans, Home Refinancing, Hotel Loans student loans with low interest rate at 2.00%
If you are interested to get a loan then kindly write us with the loan requirement.